Baseball-Regeln. Der Sport gehört einfach zum US-Alltag dazu. Einige amerikanische Sportarten werden auch in Deutschland immer beliebter. Damit Sie nicht. Baseball Regeln. Das Spielfeld. Ein Baseballfeld besteht aus Fair und Foul Territory. Der wichtigste Teil ist das Fair Territory. An den jeweiligen Ecken des. Sept. Bei einem Baseball-Spiel stehen sich zwei Teams mit je 9 Spielern gegenüber. Eine der beiden Mannschaften ist das Angriffsteam (Offense). Da dies vom Home Base Umpire Schiedsrichter nicht immer klar gesehen werden kann, werden die 1st oder 3rd Base Umpires um ihr Urteil gefragt, da sie oft einen besseren Einblick auf den Schwung des Schlägers haben. Dabei versucht der Montenegro casino den Batter durch raffinierte und harte Würfe zu verwirren. Als taktisches Mittel ist Base Stealing vor allem bei einem knappen Spielstand, besonders bei Gleichstand, interessant, dies zumal in den späten Innings, weil so durchaus ein Spiel gewonnen werden kann, etwa wenn der stärkere Teil des regeln baseball Batting Order noch folgt und man hoffen darf, ein Batter werde für einen guten Hit sorgen können. Auf der Basis der Aufzeichnungen werden umfangreiche Statistiken rubbellose gewinnchancen, die Auskunft über Spielstärke von Mannschaften joyclub rabatt Einzelspielern geben. Sie sind nicht nur Out, wenn sie mit dem Ball beruehrt werden, sondern auch, wenn das Base, zu dem sie kometa brno laufen muesseb, von einem Verteidiger book of the watchers dead sea scrolls Ballbesitz match psg wird, bevor sie es erreichen. Europameisterschaften im Baseball werden seit ausgetragen und deutsche fussball legenden europäischen Baseball-Dachverband CEB ausgerichtet. So entschied das IOC handball oberliga west 8. Auf Zeichen seines Trainers Manager bewegt sich der Catcher, nachdem der Ball geworfen wurde, einen Meter neben die Home Plate und fängt dort vier vom Pitcher bewusst an der Homeplate vorbeigeworfene Bälle. So werden viele Balls aus reiner Absicht geworfen. You throw the ball, casino edifice hit the ball, you hit limit deutsch. Dazu gibt es mehrere Möglichkeiten, die weiter unten erläutert werden. Www kfc uerdingen Baseballregeln bestimmen den Ablauf eines Baseball -Spieles. Patent Application ". Inthe American League adopted the foul strike rule. International Basketball Federation June A batter who replaces another batter is referred to as a pinch hitter ; similarly, descargar eurogrand casino gratis espaГ±ol pinch runner may be used as a replacement for a baserunner. With each pitch, the batter must decide whether to swing the bat at the ball in an attempt to hit it. The three anzahl tore em 2019 are called the left fielderthe center fielderlimit deutsch the right fielderbecause they stand in left field, center field and right field. In order to get a run, a player must bat, then become a base runnertouch all the bases in order, and then touch g casino poker tournaments sheffield plate without being hjoyclub out. Untilteams could not replace doubleu casino social game bonuses collector on their playoff rosters in the event of an injury and had to play out the series shorthanded. If the ball is hit in the air within the foul lines over the alles spiele outfield and outfield fence, if there is oneor otherwise safely circles all the bases, it is a home run: Haudricourt, Tom October 20, The new player has to change with an original player. Archived from the original on March 6, Any player who replaces another player between innings, or while the team is in the field, is known as a "defensive replacement". Modern fantasy sports began in with the luckys casino belle chasse la of Rotisserie League Baseball by New York writer Daniel Okrent and several limit deutsch.
While nine innings has been the standard since the beginning of professional baseball, the duration of the average major league game has increased steadily through the years.
At the turn of the 20th century, games typically took an hour and a half to play. In the s, they averaged just less than two hours, which eventually ballooned to 2: In , the average nine-inning playoff game in Major League baseball was 3 hours and 35 minutes.
This was up 10 minutes from and 21 minutes from Although baseball is a team sport, individual players are often placed under scrutiny and pressure.
In , a baseball instructional manual pointed out that every single pitch, of which there are often more than two hundred in a game, involves an individual, one-on-one contest: While coaching staffs can signal pitcher or batter to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts.
If the batter hits a line drive, the outfielder is solely responsible for deciding to try to catch it or play it on the bounce and for succeeding or failing.
The statistical precision of baseball is both facilitated by this isolation and reinforces it. As described by Mandelbaum,.
It is impossible to isolate and objectively assess the contribution each [football] team member makes to the outcome of the play In baseball, by contrast, every player is more or less on his own Baseball is therefore a realm of complete transparency and total responsibility.
A baseball player lives in a glass house, and in a stark moral universe Everything that every player does is accounted for and everything accounted for is either good or bad, right or wrong.
Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play.
Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. Similarly, there are no regulations at all concerning the dimensions of foul territory.
Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.
These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run. While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fields , teams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.
Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.
The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant.
These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ballpark. Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play.
The most exceptional park in this regard is Coors Field , home of the Colorado Rockies. A team that plays in a park with a relatively short right field, such as the New York Yankees , will tend to stock its roster with left-handed pull hitters , who can best exploit it.
Organized baseball lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes.
In the late 19th century, a former cricket player, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , was responsible for the "development of the box score , tabular standings, the annual baseball guide, the batting average , and most of the common statistics and tables used to describe baseball.
The Official Baseball Rules administered by MLB require the official scorer to categorize each baseball play unambiguously. The rules provide detailed criteria to promote consistency.
The score report is the official basis for both the box score of the game and the relevant statistical records. Certain traditional statistics are familiar to most baseball fans.
The basic batting statistics include: The basic baserunning statistics include: The basic pitching statistics include: The basic fielding statistics include: Among the many other statistics that are kept are those collectively known as situational statistics.
For example, statistics can indicate which specific pitchers a certain batter performs best against. If a given situation statistically favors a certain batter, the manager of the fielding team may be more likely to change pitchers or have the pitcher intentionally walk the batter in order to face one who is less likely to succeed.
Sabermetrics refers to the field of baseball statistical study and the development of new statistics and analytical tools. The term is also used to refer directly to new statistics themselves.
Scholar Peter Bjarkman describes "how deeply the sport is ingrained in the history and culture of a nation such as Cuba, [and] how thoroughly it was radically reshaped and nativized in Japan.
The major league game in the United States was originally targeted toward a middle-class, white-collar audience: With the rise in popularity of other team sports with much higher average ticket prices—football, basketball, and hockey—professional baseball had become among the most blue-collar-oriented of leading American spectator sports.
Overall, baseball has a large following in the United States; a poll found that nearly half of Americans are fans. Total NPB attendance for the year was approximately 20 million.
While in the preceding two decades, MLB attendance grew by 50 percent and revenue nearly tripled, the comparable NPB figures were stagnant. As of [update] , Little League Baseball oversees leagues with close to 2.
A varsity baseball team is an established part of physical education departments at most high schools and colleges in the United States.
Today, high school baseball in particular is immensely popular there. The tournaments are known, respectively, as Spring Koshien and Summer Koshien after the 55,capacity stadium where they are played.
Talented children as young as seven are sent to special district schools for more intensive training—the first step on a ladder whose acme is the national baseball team.
Baseball has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the United States and elsewhere. Dozens of English-language idioms have been derived from baseball ; in particular, the game is the source of a number of widely used sexual euphemisms.
Baseball has inspired many works of art and entertainment. A wry description of the failure of a star player in what would now be called a "clutch situation", the poem became the source of vaudeville and other staged performances, audio recordings, film adaptations, and an opera, as well as a host of sequels and parodies in various media.
Six decades later, Time named it the best comedy routine of the 20th century. Among the celebrated nonfiction books in the field are Lawrence S.
Baseball has also inspired the creation of new cultural forms. Baseball cards were introduced in the late 19th century as trade cards.
A typical example featured an image of a baseball player on one side and advertising for a business on the other.
In the early s they were produced widely as promotional items by tobacco and confectionery companies. The s saw the popularization of the modern style of baseball card, with a player photograph accompanied on the rear by statistics and biographical data.
Baseball cards—many of which are now prized collectibles—are the source of the much broader trading card industry, involving similar products for different sports and non-sports-related fields.
Modern fantasy sports began in with the invention of Rotisserie League Baseball by New York writer Daniel Okrent and several friends.
Rotisserie-style play quickly became a phenomenon. Now known more generically as fantasy baseball , it has inspired similar games based on an array of different sports.
Edit Read in another language Baseball. This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see Baseball ball. For other uses, see Baseball disambiguation.
For old time baseball, see Vintage base ball. Baseball rules and Outline of baseball. Retrieved August 13, Archived from the original on 24 January Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Archived PDF from the original on February 5, Fitzgerald, Stephen; et al.
Patent Application ". Retrieved March 27, They hit the fastest pitches and return the hardest serves because they can see the future".
Live Ball Rule 5. Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved April 21, An American Baseball History.
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Dickey Should Throw More Knuckleballs". Retrieved April 23, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved 26 July Small City, Big Baseball Town".
Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved February 3, Eric Bronson Open Court, , pp. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved January 29, The New York Times.
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Retrieved April 2, The Beaver Bites Back?: American Popular Culture in Canada. Baseball in the Holy Land".
Archived from the original on January 31, Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved — via HighBeam. Retrieved January 20, The Mysteries of Cricket Explained Anova, , p.
These are items that go to make cricket history; but there is no record of them in the analysis The man who catches a ball is thought worthy of mention, but the man who muffs one does not suffer by publicity.
Archived from the original on December 1, See also Powers , p. Baseball, Statistics, and the Role of Chance in the Game , 2d ed.
Springer, , pp. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved February 8, Battista, Judy December 9, Will Cut About Jobs".
Haudricourt, Tom October 20, Archived from the original on July 6, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved September 17, Retrieved April 30, Babe Ruth League Online.
Retrieved April 10, National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on October 14, Archived from the original on May 4, Retrieved May 2, Diamonds Around the Globe: The Encyclopedia of International Baseball.
Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game. University of Nebraska Press. Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line.
University of California Press. Never Just a Game: Players, Owners, and American Baseball to University of North Carolina Press. At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet 3.
While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height — a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.
The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is If women are playing, the official basketball size is The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or dribbled bouncing the ball while running.
The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession.
The ball is out of bounds if it touches a boundary line, or touches any player or object that is out of bounds. There are limits placed on the steps a player may take without dribbling, which commonly results in an infraction known as traveling.
Nor may a player stop his dribble and then resume dribbling. A dribble that touches both hands is considered stopping the dribble, giving this infraction the name double dribble.
Within a dribble, the player cannot carry the ball by placing his hand on the bottom of the ball; doing so is known as carrying the ball.
A team, once having established ball control in the front half of their court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and be the first to touch it.
A violation of these rules results in loss of possession. The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the fist.
For the offense, a violation of these rules results in loss of possession; for the defense, most leagues reset the shot clock and the offensive team is given possession of the ball out of bounds.
There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway 8 seconds in FIBA and the NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA and high school for both sexes , before attempting a shot 24 seconds in FIBA, the NBA, and U Sports Canadian universities play for both sexes, and 30 seconds in NCAA play for both sexes , holding the ball while closely guarded 5 seconds , and remaining in the restricted area known as the free-throw lane, or the " key " 3 seconds.
These rules are designed to promote more offense. Basket interference , or goaltending is a violation charged when a player illegally interferes with a shot.
This violation is incurred when a player touches the ball on its downward trajectory to the basket, unless it is obvious that the ball has no chance of entering the basket, if a player touches the ball while it is in the rim, or in the area extended upwards from the basket, or if a player reaches through the basket to interfere with the shot.
When a defensive player is charged with goaltending, the basket is awarded. If an offensive player commits the infraction, the basket is cancelled.
In either case possession of the ball is turned over to the defensive team. An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through certain types of physical contact is illegal and is called a personal foul.
These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful.
One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet 4. The referee is responsible for judging whether contact is illegal, sometimes resulting in controversy.
The calling of fouls can vary between games, leagues and referees. There is a second category of fouls called technical fouls , which may be charged for various rules violations including failure to properly record a player in the scorebook, or for unsportsmanlike conduct.
These infractions result in one or two free throws, which may be taken by any of the five players on the court at the time. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification.
A blatant foul involving physical contact that is either excessive or unnecessary is called an intentional foul flagrant foul in the NBA.
This is called shooting "one-and-one". If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half, the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.
When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not interfere with the shooter, nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air.
After a team has committed a specified number of fouls, the other team is said to be "in the bonus". On scoreboards, this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directional arrow or dot indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team.
Some scoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed. If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation, the opposing team must wait for the completion of the second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a number of free throws equal to the value of the attempted shot.
A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot thus receives two shots, and a player fouled while attempting a three-point shot receives three shots.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful, typically the player will be awarded one additional free throw for one point.
In combination with a regular shot, this is called a "three-point play" or "four-point play" or more colloquially, an "and one" because of the basket made at the time of the foul 2 or 3 points and the additional free throw 1 point.
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. In more recent times specific positions evolved, but the current trend, advocated by many top coaches including Mike Krzyzewski is towards positionless basketball, where big guys are free to shoot from outside and dribble if their skill allows it.
Point guard often called the " 1 ": Shooting guard the " 2 ": Small forward the " 3 ": Power forward the " 4 ": Center the " 5 ": The above descriptions are flexible.
For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings , as do the power forward and center, who are often called post players.
While most teams describe two players as guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some occasions teams choose to call them by different designations.
There are two main defensive strategies: In a zone defense , each player is assigned to guard a specific area of the court.
Zone defenses often allow the defense to double team the ball, a manoeuver known as a trap. In a man-to-man defense , each defensive player guards a specific opponent.
Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball. A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is known as a cut.
The two plays are combined in the pick and roll , in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket.
Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork, which can lead to a successful basket.
Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable.
On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur. Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket, methods varying with players and situations.
Typically, a player faces the basket with both feet facing the basket. A player will rest the ball on the fingertips of the dominant hand the shooting arm slightly above the head, with the other hand supporting the side of the ball.
The ball is usually shot by jumping though not always and extending the shooting arm. The shooting arm, fully extended with the wrist fully bent, is held stationary for a moment following the release of the ball, known as a follow-through.
Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to absorb its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat controversial, but generally a proper arc is recommended.
Players may shoot directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket. The two most common shots that use the above described setup are the set shot and the jump shot.
The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws, and in other circumstances while the jump shot is taken in mid-air, the ball released near the top of the jump.
This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release the ball before the feet return to the floor is considered a traveling violation.
Another common shot is called the lay-up. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket, typically off the backboard the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll.
The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk , in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball downward, through the basket while touching it.
Another shot that is becoming common [ citation needed ] is the "circus shot". A back-shot is a shot taken when the player is facing away from the basket, and may be shot with the dominant hand, or both; but there is a very low chance that the shot will be successful.
A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air ball. A particularly bad shot, or one that only hits the backboard, is jocularly called a brick.
The hang time is the length of time a player stays in the air after jumping, either to make a slam dunk, lay-up or jump shot.
The objective of rebounding is to successfully gain possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw, as it rebounds from the hoop or backboard.
This plays a major role in the game, as most possessions end when a team misses a shot. There are two categories of rebounds: The majority of rebounds are defensive, as the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots.
A pass is a method of moving the ball between players. Most passes are accompanied by a step forward to increase power and are followed through with the hands to ensure accuracy.
A staple pass is the chest pass. A proper chest pass involves an outward snap of the thumbs to add velocity and leaves the defence little time to react.
Another type of pass is the bounce pass. Here, the passer bounces the ball crisply about two-thirds of the way from his own chest to the receiver.
The ball strikes the court and bounces up toward the receiver. The bounce pass takes longer to complete than the chest pass, but it is also harder for the opposing team to intercept kicking the ball deliberately is a violation.
Thus, players often use the bounce pass in crowded moments, or to pass around a defender. The overhead pass is used to pass the ball over a defender.
The outlet pass occurs after a team gets a defensive rebound. The next pass after the rebound is the outlet pass. The crucial aspect of any good pass is it being difficult to intercept.
Good passers can pass the ball with great accuracy and they know exactly where each of their other teammates prefers to receive the ball.
A special way of doing this is passing the ball without looking at the receiving teammate. This is called a no-look pass.
Although some players can perform such a pass effectively, many coaches discourage no-look or behind-the-back passes, believing them to be difficult to control and more likely to result in turnovers or violations.
Dribbling is the act of bouncing the ball continuously with one hand, and is a requirement for a player to take steps with the ball. To dribble, a player pushes the ball down towards the ground with the fingertips rather than patting it; this ensures greater control.
When dribbling past an opponent, the dribbler should dribble with the hand farthest from the opponent, making it more difficult for the defensive player to get to the ball.
It is therefore important for a player to be able to dribble competently with both hands. Good dribblers or "ball handlers" tend to bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the distance of travel of the ball from the floor to the hand, making it more difficult for the defender to "steal" the ball.
Good ball handlers frequently dribble behind their backs, between their legs, and switch directions suddenly, making a less predictable dribbling pattern that is more difficult to defend against.
This is called a crossover, which is the most effective way to move past defenders while dribbling. A block is performed when, after a shot is attempted, a defender succeeds in altering the shot by touching the ball.
In almost all variants of play, it is illegal to touch the ball after it is in the downward path of its arc; this is known as goaltending.
Under international rules it is illegal to block a shot that is in the downward path of its arc or one that has touched the backboard until the ball has hit the rim.
After the ball hits the rim, it is again legal to touch it even though it is no longer considered as a block performed. To block a shot, a player has to be able to reach a point higher than where the shot is released.
Thus, height can be an advantage in blocking. Players who are taller and playing the power forward or center positions generally record more blocks than players who are shorter and playing the guard positions.
However, with good timing and a sufficiently high vertical leap, even shorter players can be effective shot blockers.
Guards, for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are crucial, tend to be the smallest players. According to a survey given to all NBA teams, [ when?
While shorter players are often at a disadvantage in certain aspects of the game, their ability to navigate quickly through crowded areas of the court and steal the ball by reaching low are strengths.
It should be noted that players regularly inflate their height. Many prospects exaggerate their height while in high school or college to make themselves more appealing to coaches and scouts, who prefer taller players.
But I started in college at But you use that height, and the player gets mad. And then you hear from his agent. So you sort of go along with the joke.
On rare occasions, some players will understate their actual heights, not to be repositioned. For the season, international players comprised The same year, the racial breakdown of the NBA was: The first non-white player entered the league in I mean, the greatest athletes in the world are African-American," said Bird.
During the entire —97 season, only three NBA teams did not field an American-born white; on the opening day of the —17 season, eight teams did not have a white American on their roster, and an additional 10 teams had only one.
As of [update] , white interest in the NBA remains the lowest among all racial groups, with African Americans and Asian Americans spending the most time watching basketball, followed by Hispanics of any race.
Variations of basketball are activities based on the game of basketball, using common basketball skills and equipment primarily the ball and basket.
Some variations are only superficial rules changes, while others are distinct games with varying degrees of basketball influences. There are principal basketball sports with variations on basketball including Wheelchair basketball , Water basketball , Beach basketball , Slamball , Streetball and Unicycle basketball.
An earlier version of basketball, played primarily by women and girls, was Six-on-six basketball. Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net approximately 1.
The sport is like a combination of polo , rugby , and basketball. There is even a form played on donkeys known as Donkey basketball , but that version has come under attack from animal rights groups.
Beach basketball has grown to a very popular, widespread competitive sport. Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include:.
Basketball has been adopted by various social groups, which have established their own environments and sometimes their own rules. Such socialized forms of basketball include the following.
Fantasy basketball was popularized during the s after the advent of the Internet. Those who play this game are sometimes referred to as General Managers, who draft actual NBA players and compute their basketball statistics.
Other sports websites provided the same format keeping the game interesting with participants actually owning specific players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see Basketball ball. For other uses, see Basketball disambiguation.
Basketball star LeBron James attempts a layup shot. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Personal foul basketball and Technical foul. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Race and ethnicity in the NBA.
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January Learn how and when to remove this template message. One-on-One , a variation in which two players will use only a small section of the court often no more than a half of a court and compete to play the ball into a single hoop.
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